Ancient Chinese roses in Crimea

Text: Yuta Arbatskaya, Konstantyn Vikhlyayev

        The most early types of the chinese roses in Crimea have got in hoi polloi of the name White Banksia and Yellow Banksia. The botanical names of these kinds - Rosa banksiae 'Alba' and Rosa banksiae 'Lutea' - have got by name english botany Joseph Banks, which has brought them in Europe from China as far back as end XVIII age. Both evergreen types have a strong thick climbing escapes, deprived thorn, length before 7-8 metres. Both types came up in Imperial Nikitsky botanical garden for 1817. Since blossom of these roses complies with period of the blossom to wisterias, in Crimea both these lianes much often put beside.

        Rosa fortuneana Lem. (Fortuniana) is hybrid from rose Banksiae and has very powerful rambler escapes, reaching heights 20 m, often cascade handing down with full tilt. The Sheet is green, lengthened, graceful and evergreen in condition of the South coast Crimea. The flowers are white, large, diameter 6-9 cm, double, aromatic, single. The blossom ample, very early and long-lasting (with begin April before the end of the May).

        Rosa braсteata Wendl. This type was for the first time has been brought in England in 1793 by Lord McCartney, thence its second name - R.maсartnea Dum. Curs. It has a powerful rambler escapes before 5 m heights. The sheet is small, elliptical, glossy, very thick, in condition of the South coast Kryma - evergreen. The Thorns multiple, large and small. The flowers are simple, silvery-white, flat, large diameter before 8-9 refer to, are situated single or in raceme before 4 pieces on strong short pedicel, have a strong aroma, reminiscent scent of the pear. The blossom is later, repairing, since July before the end of the December (in condition of the warm winter of the South coast Crimea). The first copies came up in Nikitsky garden for 1814.

        Rosa multiflora Thunb. is liane in nature, reach the heights before 5-6 m with powerful long escape. The sheet is dark-green. The flowers are small, simple 2-2,5 refer to in diameter, white or pale-rose. The blossom is one-shot (at the end of the May - begin the June), but very ample and decorative. The fruits are small, globous, red, also very decorative at autumn period. The top copies came up in Nikitsky garden in 1816 from Moscow estate of Count Razumovsky.

        Fortune's Double Yellow has been brought in Crimea from Europe in 1850. It blossoms at the end of the April - begin the May, the flowers are ample and very decorative. The single copy of this rose is in Alupka, under window of the Chinese cabinet of Vorontsov Palace.

        Rosa indica var fragrans Rehd., Rosa indica var odoratissima Lindl. origin from China and India. These tea roses are fragrant, shrub or rambler. The flowers are large, double, varied colourations, more often mauve or rose. This rose came up in Crimea in 1817.

        The Worontzow's park in Alupka (Alupka Park) totals about 40 bushes of the rambler Chinese roses. The oldest bushes of a kind ‘Banksiae’ (yellow and white), plantings 1827 and 1833 as documents of archive Nikitsky botanical garden testify, were kept about a fountain «Trilby». Among them there are also bushes ‘Fortuniana’, but they are placed later, in 1860-1870th. From the western side of the Woronrzow Palace has settled down magnificent banksiae ‘Lutea’, which age is approximately 110-120 years. The whole gallery of ‘Banksiaes’ and ‘Fortunians’ can be seen in flowering in May at the approach to park from the bottom road. They have interwined with other lianes and have formed a file of the twisted plants which have climbed up highly on trunks of trees lengthways road.

Banksiae 'Alba'

Banksiae 'Alba'

Banksiae 'Alba' and banksiae 'Lutea' on upper north terrazzo

        The rare kind of Chinese rose for Crimea - ‘ Fortune’s Double Yellow ’ - has settled down under windows of the Chinese cabinet of countess E.K.Worontzow.

'Fortune's Double Yellow'

        There is the greatest in Crimea a collection of a specific Chinese rose ‘ Bracteata ’ in Alupka Park, not less than 20 bushes. It is not evident, as its flowers are simple, and are similar to a dogrose. And it blossoms late - from July till November. But the very first plantings of this kind were kept only here.

        Nikitsky botanical garden, despite of the respectable age, cannot brag of such quantity of ancient grades and kinds. There are only three banksiaes: one yellow is on a colonnade at an parter and two white roses are at church before an entrance in the Garden and on a basic wall below Steven's greenhouses. The age only one is estimated approximately in 180 years, the others are planted considerably later. ‘Fortuniana’ it is presented unique too, but very magnificent bush. In individual copies roses ‘Fortune’s Double Yellow’ (on palm avenue in the Bottom park) and ‘Bracteata’ (at the laboratory case) were kept.

        But here there are some bushes of an early-flowering Chinese rose ‘ Multiflora ’ which absolutely is not present in Alupka. They are planted on a "German" site of a rosary and on terraces from the western side from the administrative case.

        In Miskhor in 1833 under the direct indication of general-governor of Tauride count M.S.Worontsow 50 bushes of roses for gardening post station have been sent. Over planning and planting of a garden at post station in Miskhor other supervised who, as Karl Keebah. Formed arch at the post house soon have nicknamed in people «The Fountain of roses» for exclusively effective composition and successfully picked up structure of grades. It can seem improbable, but arch with blossoming roses, but in strongly reduced assortment, was kept and today. Roses have grown old, in fact it already are almost 180 years, but every spring they decorate with white foam a building of the former mail already privatized and divided into apartments. Six bushes of banksiae ‘Alba’ grows here, other roses were not kept.

«The Fountain of roses» in Miskhor Park

       Here, in Miskhor, in the former manor belonged in 1830th of O.S.Naryshkina, it was kept banksiae ‘Lutea’. Its age is estimated approximately in 170 years.

        If to move in the chronological order following ancient roses are 4 banksiae ‘Lutea’ in Artek, planted in 1840 by Nikolai von Hartwiss. Once it was the territory of Hartwiss's manor «Artek-Lauterbrunn», now the land belongs to the International children's center «Artek». Roses are planted at a building of a present hostel, near to the stone ladder leading in Hartwiss Park. Once they leaned on the metal round rotunda which is not existing not so. Lianes have reached unusual height and have climbed up the run wild trees growing by a number.

        Livadia. The manor «Livadia» has rich history, and at various times the set of grades and kinds of roses here landed. Today some bushes of roses ‘Fortuniana’ and banksiae 'Alba ’ were kept on pergolas. These roses has white color, and, by thickness of trunks, only 2-3 bushes it is possible to carry all presumably to plantings 1860th years. Other "young" bushes are planted in 1909-1911.

'Fortuniana' in Livadia

        Here, perhaps, and all the kept roses which can be carried to plantings 1820-1870th years. Other Chinese kinds, lived till now on Southern coast of Crimea, are planted during rough resort construction on a boundary XIX and XX centuries, and especially it is a lot of in 1910-1914. First we "shall walk" on parks of nobiliary manors outside Yalta.

     Sanatorium "Rock" (former manor of princess A.Gagarin). From the western side of a palace was kept one excellent banksiae 'Lutea’ plantings of 1910.

    Park of sanatorium A.S.Pushkin in Gurzuf (I.Fundukley's former manor). One copy of a rose ‘Fortuniana’ braids a decorative tunnel at an entrance in a museum.

    The house of creativity of K.Korovin in Gurzuf. Two huge bushes banksiae 'Lutea’. There is also one copy of a rose ‘Fortuniana’.

'Fortuniana' in house of creativity of K.Korovin in Gurzuf

Banksiae 'Lutea' in house of creativity of K.Korovin in Gurzuf

Banksiae 'Lutea' beside entry

        Park of camp "Azure" of the international children's center «Artek» (former resort «Suuk-Su» of O.Solovieva). As a result of inspection the large copy banksiae ' Alba ’, basing on a retaining wall in immediate proximity from O.Solovieva's former house, and also some copies ‘Fortuniana’, basing on walls of sleeping cases of former resort «Suuk-Su» and retaining walls in park is found out.

        Park of sanatorium "Dnepr" (a former manor «Kharax» by grand duke G.M.Romanov). Were kept one copy for yellow banksiae and ‘Fortuniana’ at a wall of a palace from the western side.

        Sanatorium "Dulber" (former manor of grand duke P.N.Romanov). Along the bottom road in Alupka there are 6 copies banksiae 'Lutea ’.

Banksiae 'Lutea' along road beside san. "Dulber"

        Sanatorium «Clear glade» in Gaspra (a former manor of princess S.V.Panina). From the southern side of the main case there are three copies banksiae ' Alba ’. In park of the manor which already have been built up by apartment houses, there is one imperceptible bush Chinese Rosa indica, 4 powerful roses ‘Fortuniana’ in different places, and also one large copy yellow banksiae (on road to sanatorium).

Banksiae 'Lutea' beside roads between san. "Clear Glade" and san. of R. Luxemburg

        Sanatorium of R.Luxemburg in Gaspra (a former manor "Ai-Todor" of grand duke A.M.Romanov). There are two remarkable copies of ‘Fortuniana’ on both parties of an entrance gate in sanatorium.

'Fortuniana' beside entry in san. of R. Luxemburg

        Park of sanatorium "Marat" in Koreis (former manor «Murad-Avur»). One old bush yellow banksiae grows from the southern side of the central building of the former manor, one (‘Fortuniana’) bases on a wall of this building. In park there is exclusive beauty an avenue executed from specific Chinese and garden climbing roses. On avenue there are 10 bushes banksiae 'Lutea’, 6 bushes banksiae 'Alba’, 10 ‘Fortuniana’, 2 Rosa indica.

Banksiae 'Lutea' beside buildings of the former homestead in Marat

Avenue of Chinese roses in sanatorium "Marat"

        The largest copy yellow banksiae is located near to road, at summer dance floor. It is so huge, that pergolas, constructed for a support to this rose, borrows at length about 10 m.

Banksiae 'Lutea' beside entry in sanatorium "Marat"

    Territory of sanatorium "Belarus" in Koreis. The sanatorium is constructed within the first world war for recovery of healt of the soldiers who have received wounds at the front. In territory are revealed many old roses, in particular, white banksiaes, a little ‘Fortuniana’ on a retaining wall at a dining room, and also unknown ancient climbing roses .

    Boarding house "Dawn" (former manor of architect N.P.Krasnov). One copy banksiae 'Lutea’ and one - ‘Fortuniana’.

    Children's sanatorium in Alupka. One large bush banksiae 'Alba’ and one ‘Fortuniana’.

Baksiae 'Alba' in children's sanatorium in Alupka

        Sanatorium "Foros" (G.Ushkov's former manor). Here are found out two ‘Fortuniana’, located on both sides from a southern smart ladder to a building of the main house of a manor.

        Sanatorium "Moscow" in Simeis (N.Maltsov's former manor). There are one ‘Fortuniana’ at the old case and one in a court yard. In park there are 2 bushes R. indica.

'Fortuniana' in sanatorium "Moscow" in Simeis

        Sanatorium "Simeis". At an entrance on territory of sanatorium is 2 ‘Fortuniana’.

        Now we shall pass to the Chinese roses in feature of Yalta. Here single copies of planting 1890-1910th years were kept, but earlier roses it is not revealed.

        A.P.Chehov's house-museum. There is one copy banksiae 'Lutea’ at the house of the writer, planted by him in 1899.

Banksiae 'Lutea' in Chekhov's garden

        The Armenian church (former street Nobiliary). Time of plantings of roses for territories of church coincides in due course constructions of a building - 1910. In the top part of a church garden, at a ladder, grow two bushes ‘Fortuniana’, and below - banksiae 'Lutea’ and banksiae 'Alba’.

'Fortuniana' on territory Armenian church

     Kirov Street, 11. One ‘Fortuniana’ and one banksiae 'Lutea’.

    Kirov Street, in area of crossing with Shors Street. 6 copies ‘Fortuniana’.

    Kirov Street, opposite to the house 26.1 copy of a rose ‘Fortuniana’.

    Kirov Street, opposite to the house 20.1 copy of a rose ‘Fortuniana’.

    School №7 (a former female grammar school). 15 copies of a rose ‘Fortuniana’ and 1 banksiae 'Lutea’.

'Fortuniana' on Kirov St. beside school N. 7

        Park of sanatorium "Pearl" (former Erlanger's park) - two bushes R. indica at a fountain.

    Sanatorium of A.Chehov (former Erlanger's park) - an old copy banksiae 'Alba’ at the kept building of A.Erlanger's manor .

Banksiae 'Alba' in sanatorium of A.Chekhov

        Garden Street, 4. Management of the Pension fund (the former hotel "Yalta" belonged honourable citizen F.Begoon). One ‘Fortuniana’.

    Garden Street, 6. At road grow 1 banksiae 'Lutea’ and 2 ‘Fortuniana’.

    K.Marx Street. Behind post house, in depth of a court yard is 1 bush banksiae 'Lutea’.

    Yalta's Quay. Opposite to a building of "Ukrsotsbank" - 1 ‘Fortuniana’.

'Fortuniana' on Yalta's Quay

        Pushkin parkway. 2 bushes ‘Fortuniana’ are in former summer residence Troubetskoi. Possibly, they are planted together with construction of a building in 1890.

    Musical school. At a building of school 1 rose ‘Fortuniana’ grows, and its occurrence is connected, apparently, by that here there was a nursery of roses.

    Lane Laurel. In the court yard of the house belonged the Yalta doctor, the founder of first private tubercular sanatorium "Gastria", Ivan Lebedev, there is the old copy banksiae 'Lutea’.

Banksiae 'Lutea' in courtyard of the building to Lane Laurel, 4

        Vojkov Street. There is one rose banksiae 'Lutea’ in a court yard of the house belonged in the beginning of the last century to the Yalta inhabitant V.Shmelev.

Banksiae 'Lutea' in courtyard of the building on Vojkov Street

        Pioneer park (territory of former manor Mesaksudi). Along small river 4 roses banksiae 'Alba’ and 2 ‘Fortuniana’ grow. On the Birjukov Street, 6 is 2 bushes banksiae 'Lutea’, but in 1912-1915 when there were here roses, these houses belonged also Mesaksudi.

        Chekhov Street. Two copies of a rose ‘Fortuniana’ at a building of a former Palace of pioneers (opposite to bank).

    Sverdlov Street. In territory of park of a former manor of princess M.Barjatinsky is available 1 banksiae 'Lutea’.

Banksiae 'Lutea' in park of the property to princess M.Barjatinsky

        Kirov Sanatorium (a former manor «Selbillar»). One copy banksiae 'Lutea’ bases on a wall of a building of the administrative case.

Banksiae 'Lutea' in Kirov Sanatorium

    Boarding house "Sevastopol" on L.Ukrainka Street - 1 bush banksiae 'Lutea’.

        There are also other places where there are above-named Chinese kinds of roses. We did not include them in the list or owing to plantings during the "Soviet" period, or because of impossibility to install the exact address of a site of plants.

     Thus, as a result of inspection of ancient gardens and parks of Yalta and its vicinities, we find out the old Chinese roses planted 100 and more years ago. Their condition is in most cases satisfactory: every year in April-May they plentifully blossom and create an atmosphere nostalgic «blossoming paradise». At the same time annually them becomes ever less and less as roses "prevent" at constructions of modern buildings and cottages. Our article, we hope, will help with further to make the full list of these memorial roses and to recognize as their cultural heritage of Southern coast of Crimea.